Appendix to “Depression – Environmental Causes and Natural Treatments”

This page is an appendix to the article “Depression – Environmental Causes and Natural Treatments“.

Hay fever, asthma, and urticaria have also been linked to depression, bipolar disorder, other mental disorders, and suicide.1–8

Cytokine therapy, multiple types of vaccines, and endotoxin administration have been shown to induce depressive symptoms that can sometimes last for several weeks.9–16

Saffron was found to be as effective as fluoxetine in two different trials.17,18

A 2008 trial found magnesium to be as effective as imipramine in treating depression in diabetics, without any of the side effects of the drug.19,20

Many other studies, including at least two more meta-analyses and one systematic review, have found an association between poor quality diet and depression.21–36

Raw fruits and vegetables appear to be better than processed fruits and vegetables.37

There is conflicting evidence regarding vegetarian versus omnivore diets.38–43

Saffron and depression meta-analyses and systematic reviews: 44–46

More recent positive RCTs of saffron and depression since the above reviews: 47,48

Despite popular belief, vitamin C deficiency or depletion is common, with incidences ranging from 5% to 25% even in the United States and the UK. In other countries like India, it may be as high as 74%.49–51

Chen M, Su T, Chen Y, et al. Allergic rhinitis in adolescence increases the risk of depression in later life: a nationwide population-based prospective cohort study. J Affect Disord. 2013;145(1):49-53. [PubMed]
Chen M, Su T, Chen Y, et al. Higher risk of developing major depression and bipolar disorder in later life among adolescents with asthma: a nationwide prospective study. J Psychiatr Res. 2014;49:25-30. [PubMed]
Kuo C, Chen C, Huang H, et al. Increased risk of major depression subsequent to a first-attack and non-infection caused urticaria in adolescence: a nationwide population-based study. BMC Pediatr. 2014;14:181. [PubMed]
Lin T, Lee C, Lai T, et al. Association of asthma and bipolar disorder: a nationwide population-based study in Taiwan. J Affect Disord. 2014;168:30-36. [PubMed]
Alonso J, de J, Lim C, et al. Association between mental disorders and subsequent adult onset asthma. J Psychiatr Res. 2014;59:179-188. [PubMed]
Chen M, Lan W, Hsu J, et al. Risk of bipolar disorder among adolescents with allergic rhinitis: A nationwide longitudinal study. J Psychosom Res. 2015;79(6):533-536. [PubMed]
Kõlves K, Barker E, De L. Allergies and suicidal behaviors: a systematic literature review. Allergy Asthma Proc. 2015;36(6):433-438. [PubMed]
Nanda M, LeMasters G, Levin L, et al. Allergic Diseases and Internalizing Behaviors in Early Childhood. Pediatrics. 2016;137(1). [PubMed]
Eisenberger N, Inagaki T, Mashal N, Irwin M. Inflammation and social experience: an inflammatory challenge induces feelings of social disconnection in addition to depressed mood. Brain Behav Immun. 2010;24(4):558-563. [PubMed]
DellaGioia N, Hannestad J. A critical review of human endotoxin administration as an experimental paradigm of depression. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2009;34(1):130-143. [PMC]
Eisenberger N, Berkman E, Inagaki T, Rameson L, Mashal N, Irwin M. Inflammation-Induced Anhedonia: Endotoxin Reduces Ventral Striatum Responses to Reward. Biol Psychiatry. 2010;68(8):748-754. [PMC]
Rosenblat J, Cha D, Mansur R, McIntyre R. Inflamed moods: a review of the interactions between inflammation and mood disorders. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2014;53:23-34. [PubMed]
Hashmi A, Butt Z, Umair M. Is depression an inflammatory condition? A review of available evidence. J Pak Med Assoc. 2013;63(7):899-906. [PubMed]
Morag M, Yirmiya R, Lerer B, Morag A. Influence of socioeconomic status on behavioral, emotional and cognitive effects of rubella vaccination: a prospective, double blind study. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 1998;23(4):337-351. [PubMed]
Kuhlman K, Robles T, Dooley L, Boyle C, Haydon M, Bower J. Within-subject associations between inflammation and features of depression: Using the flu vaccine as a mild inflammatory stimulus. Brain Behav Immun. February 2018. [PubMed]
Madeeh H, Awais A, Mazhar N, Umair M, Butt Z. The fiery landscape of depression: A review of the inflammatory hypothesis. Pak J Med Sci. 2013;29(3):877-884. [PMC]
Noorbala A, Akhondzadeh S, Tahmacebi-Pour N, Jamshidi A. Hydro-alcoholic extract of Crocus sativus L. versus fluoxetine in the treatment of mild to moderate depression: a double-blind, randomized pilot trial. J Ethnopharmacol. 2005;97(2):281-284. [PubMed]
Akhondzadeh B, Moshiri E, Noorbala A, Jamshidi A, Abbasi S, Akhondzadeh S. Comparison of petal of Crocus sativus L. and fluoxetine in the treatment of depressed outpatients: a pilot double-blind randomized trial. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2007;31(2):439-442. [PubMed]
Barragán-Rodríguez L, Rodríguez-Morán M, Guerrero-Romero F. Efficacy and safety of oral magnesium supplementation in the treatment of depression in the elderly with type 2 diabetes: a randomized, equivalent trial. Magnes Res. 2008;21(4):218-223. [PubMed]
Eby G, Eby K. Magnesium for treatment-resistant depression: a review and hypothesis. Med Hypotheses. 2010;74(4):649-660. [PubMed]
Westover A, Marangell L. A cross-national relationship between sugar consumption and major depression? Depress Anxiety. 2002;16(3):118-120. [PubMed]
Anderson P. DASH Diet Linked to Lower Risk for Depression. Medscape. Published February 28, 2018. Accessed March 16, 2018.
Le P, Gueguen A, Kesse-Guyot E, et al. Association between dietary patterns and depressive symptoms over time: a 10-year follow-up study of the GAZEL cohort. PLoS One. 2012;7(12):e51593. [PubMed]
Nanri A. Nutritional epidemiology of type 2 diabetes and depressive symptoms. J Epidemiol. 2013;23(4):243-250. [PubMed]
Lai J, Hiles S, Bisquera A, Hure A, McEvoy M, Attia J. A systematic review and meta-analysis of dietary patterns and depression in community-dwelling adults. Am J Clin Nutr. 2014;99(1):181-197. [PubMed]
Jacka F, Kremer P, Leslie E, et al. Associations between diet quality and depressed mood in adolescents: results from the Australian Healthy Neighbourhoods Study. Aust N Z J Psychiatry. 2010;44(5):435-442. [PubMed]
Sanhueza C, Ryan L, Foxcroft D. Diet and the risk of unipolar depression in adults: systematic review of cohort studies. J Hum Nutr Diet. 2013;26(1):56-70. [PubMed]
Boehm J, Williams D, Rimm E, Ryff C, Kubzansky L. Association between optimism and serum antioxidants in the midlife in the United States study. Psychosom Med. 2013;75(1):2-10. [PubMed]
Tajik E, Latiffah A, Awang H, et al. Unhealthy diet practice and symptoms of stress and depression among adolescents in Pasir Gudang, Malaysia. Obes Res Clin Pract. 2016;10(2):114-123. [PubMed]
Psaltopoulou T, Sergentanis T, Panagiotakos D, Sergentanis I, Kosti R, Scarmeas N. Mediterranean diet, stroke, cognitive impairment, and depression: A meta-analysis. Ann Neurol. 2013;74(4):580-591. [PubMed]
Sánchez-Villegas A, Delgado-Rodríguez M, Alonso A, et al. Association of the Mediterranean dietary pattern with the incidence of depression: the Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra/University of Navarra follow-up (SUN) cohort. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2009;66(10):1090-1098. [PubMed]
Jacka F, Pasco J, Mykletun A, et al. Association of Western and traditional diets with depression and anxiety in women. Am J Psychiatry. 2010;167(3):305-311. [PubMed]
Sánchez-Villegas A, Verberne L, De I, et al. Dietary fat intake and the risk of depression: the SUN Project. PLoS One. 2011;6(1):e16268. [PubMed]
Jacka F, Mykletun A, Berk M, Bjelland I, Tell G. The association between habitual diet quality and the common mental disorders in community-dwelling adults: the Hordaland Health study. Psychosom Med. 2011;73(6):483-490. [PubMed]
Opie R, Itsiopoulos C, Parletta N, et al. Dietary recommendations for the prevention of depression. Nutr Neurosci. 2017;20(3):161-171. [PubMed]
Sánchez-Villegas A, Toledo E, de I, Ruiz-Canela M, Pla-Vidal J, Martínez-González M. Fast-food and commercial baked goods consumption and the risk of depression. Public Health Nutr. 2012;15(3):424-432. [PubMed]
Brookie KL, Best GI, Conner TS. Intake of Raw Fruits and Vegetables Is Associated With Better Mental Health Than Intake of Processed Fruits and Vegetables. F. 2018;9. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2018.00487
Vaz J, Kac G, Nardi A, Hibbeln J. Omega-6 fatty acids and greater likelihood of suicide risk and major depression in early pregnancy. J Affect Disord. 2014;152-154:76-82. [PubMed]
Beezhold BL, Johnston CS. Restriction of meat, fish, and poultry in omnivores improves mood: A pilot randomized controlled trial. N. 2012;11(1). doi:10.1186/1475-2891-11-9
Li F, Liu X, Zhang D. Fish consumption and risk of depression: a meta-analysis. J Epidemiol Community Health. 2016;70(3):299-304. [PubMed]
Jacka F, Pasco J, Williams L, et al. Red meat consumption and mood and anxiety disorders. Psychother Psychosom. 2012;81(3):196-198. [PubMed]
Hibbeln J, Northstone K, Evans J, Golding J. Vegetarian diets and depressive symptoms among men. J Affect Disord. 2018;225:13-17. [PubMed]
Beezhold BL, Johnston CS, Daigle DR. Vegetarian diets are associated with healthy mood states: a cross-sectional study in Seventh Day Adventist adults. N. 2010;9(1). doi:10.1186/1475-2891-9-26
Hausenblas H, Saha D, Dubyak P, Anton S. Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) and major depressive disorder: a meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials. J Integr Med. 2013;11(6):377-383. [PubMed]
Hausenblas H, Heekin K, Mutchie H, Anton S. A systematic review of randomized controlled trials examining the effectiveness of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) on psychological and behavioral outcomes. J Integr Med. 2015;13(4):231-240. [PubMed]
Lopresti A, Drummond P. Saffron (Crocus sativus) for depression: a systematic review of clinical studies and examination of underlying antidepressant mechanisms of action. Hum Psychopharmacol. 2014;29(6):517-527. [PubMed]
Tabeshpour J, Sobhani F, Sadjadi S, et al. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of saffron stigma (Crocus sativus L.) in mothers suffering from mild-to-moderate postpartum depression. Phytomedicine. 2017;36:145-152. [PubMed]
Mazidi M, Shemshian M, Mousavi S, et al. A double-blind, randomized and placebo-controlled trial of Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) in the treatment of anxiety and depression. J Complement Integr Med. 2016;13(2):195-199. [PubMed]
Mosdøl A, Erens B, Brunner E. Estimated prevalence and predictors of vitamin C deficiency within UK’s low-income population. J Public Health (Oxf). 2008;30(4):456-460. [PubMed]
Hampl J, Taylor C, Johnston C. Vitamin C Deficiency and Depletion in the United States: The Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988 to 1994. Am J Public Health. 2004;94(5):870-875. [PMC]
Ravindran RD, Vashist P, K. Gupta S, et al. Prevalence and Risk Factors for Vitamin C Deficiency in North and South India: A Two Centre Population Based Study in People Aged 60 Years and Over. Noor AM, ed. P. 2011;6(12):e28588. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0028588