Appendix to “Depression Caused by Infection, Stress, and Toxicants”

This page is an appendix to the article “Depression Caused by Infection, Stress, and Toxicants“.

Links between psoriasis, depression, and Candida: 1–4

Oral contraceptive use linked to Candida: 5–10

Estrogen regulates virulence of Candida: 11–14

Proton-pump inhibitors linked to depression: 15,16

Proton-pump inhibitors linked to Candida: 17–19

Sugar can exacerbate the virulence of an existing Candida infection, causing it to change from an oval form to an infectious filamentous form.20–25

Candida can use not only glucose, but also ethanol to produce toxic acetaldehyde.26–30

Job strain, bullying, and a lack of decision latitude at work have also been associated with depression.31

Several meta-analyses have concluded that mindfulness meditation is beneficial in the treatment of psychological problems including depression, anxiety, and stress.32–37

Circadian misalignment and melatonin secretion has been linked to depression in a number of studies. And those who go to bed the latest have almost twice the odds of psychological disorder than those who sleep the earliest.38–40

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Research links psoriasis, depression. American Academy of Dermatology. https://www.aad.org/media/news-releases/research-links-psoriasis-depression. Published August 17, 2015.
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Zakout Y, Salih M, Ahmed H. Frequency of Candida species in Papanicolaou smears taken from Sudanese oral hormonal contraceptives users. Biotech Histochem. 2012;87(2):95-97. [PubMed]
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Spinillo A, Capuzzo E, Nicola S, Baltaro F, Ferrari A, Monaco A. The impact of oral contraception on vulvovaginal candidiasis. Contraception. 1995;51(5):293-297. [PubMed]
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Aminzadeh A, Sabeti S, Nik A. Frequency of Candidiasis and Colonization of Candida albicans in Relation to Oral Contraceptive Pills. Iran Red Crescent Med J. 2016;18(10):e38909. [PMC]
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White S, Larsen B. Candida albicans morphogenesis is influenced by estrogen. C. 1997;53(9):744-749. doi:10.1007/s000180050094
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Zhao X, Malloy P, Ardies C, Feldman D. Oestrogen-binding protein in Candida albicans: antibody development and cellular localization by electron immunocytochemistry. Microbiology. 1995;141 ( Pt 10):2685-2692. [PubMed]
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Cheng G, Yeater K, Hoyer L. Cellular and Molecular Biology of Candida albicans Estrogen Response . Eukaryot Cell. 2006;5(1):180-191. [PMC]
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Laudisio A, Antonelli I, Gemma A, et al. Use of proton-pump inhibitors is associated with depression: a population-based study. Int Psychogeriatr. 2018;30(1):153-159. [PubMed]
16.
Huang W-S, Bai Y-M, Hsu J-W, et al. Use of Proton Pump Inhibitors and Risk of Major Depressive Disorder: A Nationwide Population-Based Study. P. 2018;87(1):62-64. doi:10.1159/000485190
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Daniell H. Acid suppressing therapy as a risk factor for Candida esophagitis. Dis Esophagus. 2016;29(5):479-483. [PubMed]
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Hoshino E, Fujisaki T, Tatewaki M, Fujisaki J, Uragami N, Fujita R. Role of Proton Pump Inhibitor As a Predisposing Factor of Candida Esophagitis. G. 2008;67(5):AB190. doi:10.1016/j.gie.2008.03.473
19.
Shah N, Cavanagh Y, Shulik O, Patel P, DeBari V, Baddoura W. Proton Pump Inhibitors and Corticosteroids as Synergistic Risk Factors for Candida Esophagitis. B. 2015;10(6):1-6. doi:10.9734/bjmmr/2015/20171
20.
Hostetter M. Handicaps to host defense. Effects of hyperglycemia on C3 and Candida albicans. Diabetes. 1990;39(3):271-275. [PubMed]
21.
Weig M, Werner E, Frosch M, Kasper H. Limited effect of refined carbohydrate dietary supplementation on colonization of the gastrointestinal tract of healthy subjects by Candida albicans. Am J Clin Nutr. 1999;69(6):1170-1173. [PubMed]
22.
Hudson D, Sciascia Q, Sanders R, et al. Identification of the dialysable serum inducer of germ-tube formation in Candida albicans. Microbiology. 2004;150(Pt 9):3041-3049. [PubMed]
23.
Rodaki A, Bohovych I, Enjalbert B, et al. Glucose promotes stress resistance in the fungal pathogen Candida albicans. Mol Biol Cell. 2009;20(22):4845-4855. [PubMed]
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Han T, Cannon R, Villas-Bôas S. The metabolic basis of Candida albicans morphogenesis and quorum sensing. Fungal Genet Biol. 2011;48(8):747-763. [PubMed]
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Buu L-M, Chen Y-C. Impact of glucose levels on expression of hypha-associated secreted aspartyl proteinases in Candida albicans. J. 2014;21(1):22. doi:10.1186/1423-0127-21-22
26.
Gainza-Cirauqui M, Nieminen M, Novak F, Aguirre-Urizar J, Moragues M, Rautemaa R. Production of carcinogenic acetaldehyde by Candida albicans from patients with potentially malignant oral mucosal disorders. J Oral Pathol Med. 2013;42(3):243-249. [PubMed]
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Boden J, Fergusson D. Alcohol and depression. Addiction. 2011;106(5):906-914. [PubMed]
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Baron K, Reid K. Circadian misalignment and health. Int Rev Psychiatry. 2014;26(2):139-154. [PubMed]
40.
Knutson KL, von Schantz M. Associations between chronotype, morbidity and mortality in the UK Biobank cohort. C. April 2018:1-9. doi:10.1080/07420528.2018.1454458
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